Changes between Initial Version and Version 1 of TracFastCgi


Ignore:
Timestamp:
Feb 24, 2010, 12:11:38 AM (5 years ago)
Author:
trac
Comment:

--

Legend:

Unmodified
Added
Removed
Modified
  • TracFastCgi

    v1 v1  
     1= Trac with FastCGI =
     2
     3[http://www.fastcgi.com/ FastCGI] interface allows Trac to remain resident much like with [wiki:TracModPython mod_python]. It is faster than external CGI interfaces which must start a new process for each request. However, unlike mod_python, FastCGI supports [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/suexec.html Apache SuEXEC], i.e. run with different permissions than web server. Additionally, it is supported by much wider variety of web servers.
     4
     5'''Note for Windows:''' Trac's FastCGI does not run under Windows, as Windows does not implement `Socket.fromfd`, which is used by `_fcgi.py`. If you want to connect to IIS, you may want to try [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp AJP].
     6
     7== Simple Apache configuration ==
     8
     9There are two FastCGI modules commonly available for Apache: `mod_fastcgi` and
     10`mod_fcgid` (preferred). The latter is more up-to-date.
     11
     12==== setup with `mod_fastcgi` ====
     13`mod_fastcgi` uses `FastCgiIpcDir` and `FastCgiConfig` directives that should be added to an appropriate Apache configuration file:
     14{{{
     15# Enable fastcgi for .fcgi files
     16# (If you're using a distro package for mod_fcgi, something like
     17# this is probably already present)
     18<IfModule mod_fastcgi.c>
     19   AddHandler fastcgi-script .fcgi
     20   FastCgiIpcDir /var/lib/apache2/fastcgi
     21</IfModule>
     22LoadModule fastcgi_module /usr/lib/apache2/modules/mod_fastcgi.so
     23}}}
     24Setting `FastCgiIpcDir` is optional if the default is suitable. Note that the `LoadModule` line must be after the `IfModule` group.
     25
     26Configure `ScriptAlias` or similar options as described in TracCgi, but
     27calling `trac.fcgi` instead of `trac.cgi`.
     28
     29You can set up the `TRAC_ENV` as an overall default:
     30{{{
     31FastCgiConfig -initial-env TRAC_ENV=/path/to/env/trac
     32}}}
     33
     34Or you can serve multiple Trac projects in a directory like:
     35{{{
     36FastCgiConfig -initial-env TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR=/parent/dir/of/projects
     37}}}
     38
     39==== setup with `mod_fcgid` ====
     40Configure `ScriptAlias` (see TracCgi for details), but call `trac.fcgi`
     41instead of `trac.cgi`. Note that slash at the end - it is important.
     42{{{
     43ScriptAlias /trac /path/to/www/trac/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi/
     44}}}
     45
     46To setup Trac environment for `mod_fcgid` it is necessary to use
     47`FCGIDDefaultInitEnv` directive. It cannot be used in `Directory` or
     48`Location` context, so if you need to support multiple projects, try
     49alternative environment setup below.
     50
     51{{{
     52FCGIDDefaultInitEnv TRAC_ENV /path/to/env/trac/
     53}}}
     54
     55==== alternative environment setup ====
     56A better method to specify path to Trac environment it to embed the path
     57into `trac.fcgi` script itself. That doesn't require configuration of server
     58environment variables, works for both FastCgi modules
     59(and for [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd] and CGI as well):
     60{{{
     61import os
     62os.environ['TRAC_ENV'] = "/path/to/projectenv"
     63}}}
     64or
     65{{{
     66import os
     67os.environ['TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR'] = "/path/to/project/parent/dir"
     68}}}
     69
     70With this method different projects can be supported by using different
     71`.fcgi` scripts with different `ScriptAliases`.
     72
     73See [https://coderanger.net/~coderanger/httpd/fcgi_example.conf this fcgid example config] which uses a !ScriptAlias directive with trac.fcgi with a trailing / like this:
     74{{{
     75ScriptAlias / /srv/tracsite/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi/
     76}}}
     77
     78== Simple Cherokee Configuration ==
     79
     80The configuration on Cherokee's side is quite simple. You will only need to know that you can spawn Trac as an SCGI process.
     81You can either start it manually, or better yet, automatically by letting Cherokee spawn the server whenever it is down.
     82First set up an information source in cherokee-admin with a local interpreter.
     83
     84{{{
     85Host:
     86localhost:4433
     87
     88Interpreter:
     89/usr/bin/tracd —single-env —daemonize —protocol=scgi —hostname=localhost —port=4433 /path/to/project/
     90}}}
     91
     92If the port was not reachable, the interpreter command would be launched. Note that, in the definition of the information source, you will have to manually launch the spawner if you use a ''Remote host'' as ''Information source'' instead of a ''Local interpreter''.
     93
     94After doing this, we will just have to create a new rule managed by the SCGI handler to access Trac. It can be created in a new virtual server, trac.example.net for instance, and will only need two rules. The '''default''' one will use the SCGI handler associated to the previously created information source.
     95The second rule will be there to serve the few static files needed to correctly display the Trac interface. Create it as ''Directory rule'' for ''/chrome/common'' and just set it to the ''Static files'' handler and with a ''Document root'' that points to the appropriate files: ''/usr/share/trac/htdocs/''
     96
     97== Simple Lighttpd Configuration ==
     98
     99The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.lighttpd.net/ lighttpd].
     100
     101lighttpd is a secure, fast, compliant and very flexible web-server that has been optimized for high-performance
     102environments.  It has a very low memory footprint compared to other web servers and takes care of CPU load.
     103
     104For using `trac.fcgi`(prior to 0.11) / fcgi_frontend.py (0.11) with lighttpd add the following to your lighttpd.conf:
     105{{{
     106#var.fcgi_binary="/usr/bin/python /path/to/fcgi_frontend.py" # 0.11 if installed with easy_setup, it is inside the egg directory
     107var.fcgi_binary="/path/to/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi" # 0.10 name of prior fcgi executable
     108fastcgi.server = ("/trac" =>
     109   
     110                   ("trac" =>
     111                     ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi.sock",
     112                      "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
     113                      "check-local" => "disable",
     114                      "bin-environment" =>
     115                        ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv")
     116                     )
     117                   )
     118                 )
     119}}}
     120
     121Note that you will need to add a new entry to `fastcgi.server` for each separate Trac instance that you wish to run. Alternatively, you may use the `TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR` variable instead of `TRAC_ENV` as described above,
     122and you may set one of the two in `trac.fcgi` instead of in `lighttpd.conf`
     123using `bin-environment` (as in the section above on Apache configuration).
     124
     125For using two projects with lighttpd add the following to your `lighttpd.conf`:
     126{{{
     127fastcgi.server = ("/first" =>
     128                   ("first" =>
     129                    ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi-first.sock",
     130                     "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
     131                     "check-local" => "disable",
     132                     "bin-environment" =>
     133                       ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv-first")
     134                    )
     135                  ),
     136                  "/second" =>
     137                    ("second" =>
     138                    ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi-second.sock",
     139                     "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
     140                     "check-local" => "disable",
     141                     "bin-environment" =>
     142                       ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv-second")
     143                    )
     144                  )
     145                )
     146}}}
     147Note that field values are different.  If you prefer setting the environment
     148variables in the `.fcgi` scripts, then copy/rename `trac.fcgi`, e.g., to
     149`first.fcgi` and `second.fcgi`, and reference them in the above settings.
     150Note that the above will result in different processes in any event, even
     151if both are running from the same `trac.fcgi` script.
     152{{{
     153#!div class=important
     154'''Note''' It's very important the order on which server.modules are loaded, if mod_auth is not loaded '''BEFORE''' mod_fastcgi, then the server will fail to authenticate the user.
     155}}}
     156For authentication you should enable mod_auth in lighttpd.conf 'server.modules', select auth.backend and auth rules:
     157{{{
     158server.modules              = (
     159...
     160  "mod_auth",
     161...
     162)
     163
     164auth.backend               = "htpasswd"
     165
     166# Separated password files for each project
     167# See "Conditional Configuration" in
     168# http://trac.lighttpd.net/trac/file/branches/lighttpd-merge-1.4.x/doc/configuration.txt
     169
     170$HTTP["url"] =~ "^/first/" {
     171  auth.backend.htpasswd.userfile = "/path/to/projenv-first/htpasswd.htaccess"
     172}
     173$HTTP["url"] =~ "^/second/" {
     174  auth.backend.htpasswd.userfile = "/path/to/projenv-second/htpasswd.htaccess"
     175}
     176
     177# Enable auth on trac URLs, see
     178# http://trac.lighttpd.net/trac/file/branches/lighttpd-merge-1.4.x/doc/authentication.txt
     179
     180auth.require = ("/first/login" =>
     181                ("method"  => "basic",
     182                 "realm"   => "First project",
     183                 "require" => "valid-user"
     184                ),
     185                "/second/login" =>
     186                ("method"  => "basic",
     187                 "realm"   => "Second project",
     188                 "require" => "valid-user"
     189                )
     190               )
     191
     192
     193}}}
     194Note that lighttpd (I use version 1.4.3) stopped if password file doesn't exist.
     195
     196Note that lighttpd doesn't support 'valid-user' in versions prior to 1.3.16.
     197
     198Conditional configuration is also useful for mapping static resources, i.e. serving out images and CSS directly instead of through FastCGI:
     199{{{
     200# Aliasing functionality is needed
     201server.modules += ("mod_alias")
     202
     203# Setup an alias for the static resources
     204alias.url = ("/trac/chrome/common" => "/usr/share/trac/htdocs")
     205
     206# Use negative lookahead, matching all requests that ask for any resource under /trac, EXCEPT in
     207# /trac/chrome/common, and use FastCGI for those
     208$HTTP["url"] =~ "^/trac(?!/chrome/common)" {
     209# Even if you have other fastcgi.server declarations for applications other than Trac, do NOT use += here
     210fastcgi.server = ("/trac" =>
     211                   ("trac" =>
     212                     ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi.sock",
     213                      "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
     214                      "check-local" => "disable",
     215                      "bin-environment" =>
     216                        ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv")
     217                     )
     218                   )
     219                 )
     220}
     221}}}
     222The technique can be easily adapted for use with multiple projects by creating aliases for each of them, and wrapping the fastcgi.server declarations inside conditional configuration blocks.
     223Also there is another way to handle multiple projects and it's to use TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR instead of TRAC_ENV and use global auth, let's see an example:
     224{{{
     225#  This is for handling multiple projects
     226  alias.url       = ( "/trac/" => "/path/to/trac/htdocs/" )
     227
     228  fastcgi.server += ("/projects"  =>
     229                      ("trac" =>
     230                        (
     231                          "socket" => "/tmp/trac.sock",
     232                          "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
     233                          "check-local" => "disable",
     234                          "bin-environment" =>
     235                            ("TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR" => "/path/to/parent/dir/of/projects/" )
     236                        )
     237                      )
     238                    )
     239#And here starts the global auth configuration
     240  auth.backend = "htpasswd"
     241  auth.backend.htpasswd.userfile = "/path/to/unique/htpassword/file/trac.htpasswd"
     242  $HTTP["url"] =~ "^/projects/.*/login$" {
     243    auth.require = ("/" =>
     244                     (
     245                       "method"  => "basic",
     246                       "realm"   => "trac",
     247                       "require" => "valid-user"
     248                     )
     249                   )
     250  }
     251}}}
     252
     253Changing date/time format also supported by lighttpd over environment variable LC_TIME
     254{{{
     255fastcgi.server = ("/trac" =>
     256                   ("trac" =>
     257                     ("socket" => "/tmp/trac-fastcgi.sock",
     258                      "bin-path" => fcgi_binary,
     259                      "check-local" => "disable",
     260                      "bin-environment" =>
     261                        ("TRAC_ENV" => "/path/to/projenv",
     262                        "LC_TIME" => "ru_RU")
     263                     )
     264                   )
     265                 )
     266}}}
     267For details about languages specification see [trac:TracFaq TracFaq] question 2.13.
     268
     269Other important information like [http://trac.lighttpd.net/trac/wiki/TracInstall this updated TracInstall page], [wiki:TracCgi#MappingStaticResources and this] are useful for non-fastcgi specific installation aspects.
     270
     271If you use trac-0.9, read [http://lists.edgewall.com/archive/trac/2005-November/005311.html about small bug]
     272
     273Relaunch lighttpd, and browse to `http://yourhost.example.org/trac` to access Trac.
     274
     275Note about running lighttpd with reduced permissions:
     276
     277  If nothing else helps and trac.fcgi doesn't start with lighttpd settings __server.username = "www-data"__, __server.groupname = "www-data"__, then in the `bin-environment` section set `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` to the home directory of `www-data` or some other directory accessible to this account for writing.
     278
     279
     280== Simple !LiteSpeed Configuration ==
     281
     282The FastCGI front-end was developed primarily for use with alternative webservers, such as [http://www.litespeedtech.com/ LiteSpeed].
     283
     284!LiteSpeed web server is an event-driven asynchronous Apache replacement designed from the ground-up to be secure, scalable, and operate with minimal resources. !LiteSpeed can operate directly from an Apache config file and is targeted for business-critical environments.
     285
     286Setup
     287
     2881) Please make sure you have first have a working install of a Trac project. Test install with “tracd” first.
     289
     2902) Create a Virtual Host for this setup. From now on we will refer to this vhost as TracVhost. For this tutorial we will be assuming that your trac project will be accessible via:
     291
     292{{{
     293http://yourdomain.com/trac/
     294}}}
     295
     2963) Go “TracVhost → External Apps” tab and create a new “External Application”.
     297
     298{{{
     299Name: MyTracFCGI       
     300Address: uds://tmp/lshttpd/mytracfcgi.sock
     301Max Connections: 10
     302Environment: TRAC_ENV=/fullpathto/mytracproject/ <--- path to root folder of trac project
     303Initial Request Timeout (secs): 30
     304Retry Timeout (secs): 0
     305Persistent Connection   Yes
     306Connection Keepalive Timeout: 30
     307Response Bufferring: No
     308Auto Start: Yes
     309Command: /usr/share/trac/cgi-bin/trac.fcgi  <--- path to trac.fcgi
     310Back Log: 50
     311Instances: 10
     312}}}
     313
     3144) Optional. If you need to use htpasswd based authentication. Go to “TracVhost → Security” tab and create a new security “Realm”.
     315
     316{{{
     317DB Type: Password File
     318Realm Name: MyTracUserDB               <--- any name you wish and referenced later
     319User DB Location: /fullpathto/htpasswd <--- path to your htpasswd file
     320}}}
     321
     322If you don’t have a htpasswd file or don’t know how to create the entries within one, go to http://sherylcanter.com/encrypt.php, to generate the user:password combos.
     323
     3245) Go to “PythonVhost → Contexts” and create a new “FCGI Context”.
     325
     326{{{
     327URI: /trac/                              <--- URI path to bind to python fcgi app we created   
     328Fast CGI App: [VHost Level] MyTractFCGI  <--- select the trac fcgi extapp we just created
     329Realm: TracUserDB                        <--- only if (4) is set. select realm created in (4)
     330}}}
     331
     3326) Modify /fullpathto/mytracproject/conf/trac.ini
     333
     334{{{
     335#find/set base_rul, url, and link variables
     336base_url = http://yourdomain.com/trac/ <--- base url to generate correct links to
     337url = http://yourdomain.com/trac/      <--- link of project
     338link = http://yourdomain.com/trac/     <--- link of graphic logo
     339}}}
     340
     3417) Restart !LiteSpeed, “lswsctrl restart”, and access your new Trac project at:
     342
     343{{{
     344http://yourdomain.com/trac/
     345}}}
     346
     347=== Simple Nginx Configuration ===
     348
     3491) Nginx configuration snippet - confirmed to work on 0.6.32
     350{{{
     351    server {
     352        listen       10.9.8.7:443;
     353        server_name  trac.example;
     354
     355        ssl                  on;
     356        ssl_certificate      /etc/ssl/trac.example.crt;
     357        ssl_certificate_key  /etc/ssl/trac.example.key;
     358
     359        ssl_session_timeout  5m;
     360
     361        ssl_protocols  SSLv2 SSLv3 TLSv1;
     362        ssl_ciphers  ALL:!ADH:!EXPORT56:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP;
     363        ssl_prefer_server_ciphers   on;
     364
     365        # (Or ``^/some/prefix/(.*)``.
     366        if ($uri ~ ^/(.*)) {
     367             set $path_info /$1;
     368        }
     369
     370        # You can copy this whole location to ``location [/some/prefix]/login``
     371        # and remove the auth entries below if you want Trac to enforce
     372        # authorization where appropriate instead of needing to authenticate
     373        # for accessing the whole site.
     374        # (Or ``location /some/prefix``.)
     375        location / {
     376            auth_basic            "trac realm";
     377            auth_basic_user_file /home/trac/htpasswd;
     378
     379            # socket address
     380            fastcgi_pass   unix:/home/trac/run/instance.sock;
     381
     382            # python - wsgi specific
     383            fastcgi_param HTTPS on;
     384
     385            ## WSGI REQUIRED VARIABLES
     386            # WSGI application name - trac instance prefix.
     387            # (Or ``fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME  /some/prefix``.)
     388            fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        "";
     389            fastcgi_param  PATH_INFO          $path_info;
     390
     391            ## WSGI NEEDED VARIABLES - trac warns about them
     392            fastcgi_param  REQUEST_METHOD     $request_method;
     393            fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME        $server_name;
     394            fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT        $server_port;
     395            fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol;
     396
     397            # for authentication to work
     398            fastcgi_param  AUTH_USER          $remote_user;
     399            fastcgi_param  REMOTE_USER        $remote_user;
     400        }
     401    }
     402}}}
     403
     4042) Modified trac.fcgi:
     405
     406{{{
     407#!/usr/bin/env python
     408import os
     409sockaddr = '/home/trac/run/instance.sock'
     410os.environ['TRAC_ENV'] = '/home/trac/instance'
     411
     412try:
     413     from trac.web.main import dispatch_request
     414     import trac.web._fcgi
     415
     416     fcgiserv = trac.web._fcgi.WSGIServer(dispatch_request,
     417          bindAddress = sockaddr, umask = 7)
     418     fcgiserv.run()
     419
     420except SystemExit:
     421    raise
     422except Exception, e:
     423    print 'Content-Type: text/plain\r\n\r\n',
     424    print 'Oops...'
     425    print
     426    print 'Trac detected an internal error:'
     427    print
     428    print e
     429    print
     430    import traceback
     431    import StringIO
     432    tb = StringIO.StringIO()
     433    traceback.print_exc(file=tb)
     434    print tb.getvalue()
     435
     436}}}
     437
     4383) reload nginx and launch trac.fcgi like that:
     439
     440{{{
     441trac@trac.example ~ $ ./trac-standalone-fcgi.py
     442}}}
     443
     444The above assumes that:
     445 * There is a user named 'trac' for running trac instances and keeping trac environments in its home directory.
     446 * /home/trac/instance contains a trac environment
     447 * /home/trac/htpasswd contains authentication information
     448 * /home/trac/run is owned by the same group the nginx runs under
     449  * and if your system is Linux the /home/trac/run has setgid bit set (chmod g+s run)
     450  * and patch from ticket #T7239 is applied, or you'll have to fix the socket file permissions every time
     451
     452Unfortunately nginx does not support variable expansion in fastcgi_pass directive.
     453Thus it is not possible to serve multiple trac instances from one server block.
     454
     455If you worry enough about security, run trac instances under separate users.
     456
     457Another way to run trac as a FCGI external application is offered in ticket #T6224
     458
     459----
     460See also:  TracGuide, TracInstall, [wiki:TracModWSGI ModWSGI], [wiki:TracCgi CGI], [wiki:TracModPython ModPython], [trac:TracNginxRecipe TracNginxRecipe]